Loans play a dominant role in Chinese development aid and foreign trade. Their political and economic assessments are the subject of heated debate.
Today, China is the largest bilateral lender for the low- and middle-income states of the Global South. This is also why only debt relief initiatives which include China can be effective. Nevertheless, who are the players in the Chinese development cooperation and what is their significance? How does Chinese so-called development finance practice differ from that of Western countries?